Two systems have been used for die casting. One is called hot die chamber casting, and the other is called cold die chamber casting. Both have similar processes but use different materials, and have different placement of parts.

Hot chamber die casting is used for alloys with low melting temperatures. These alloys can include zinc, tin, and lead.  The alloys are melted down to a molten liquid and placed into a shot chamber. The molten metal is then pressurized into a hot chamber die casting mold via a gooseneck. The pressure can be between 1000-5000 psi. Once the molten liquid has filled the die cavity, the die is closed. From here the molten liquid (now a solid) is ejected and a product is created.  The process then repeats

Cold die chamber casting is used for metal alloys that cannot be heated in a hot chamber die casting. This is because the pumping chamber can become damaged by the high temperatures.  The pump and shot sleeve are outside the heating mechanism. The process starts with the liquefied metal in a separate area. The metal is then poured into an injection cylinder, where a mechanical piston is triggered and forces the alloy mixture into the mold.  Once the mold is filled, the alloy frame is removed and the process starts again. This process takes longer than hot chamber die casting because the alloy has to be heated separately and then applied to the cold die chamber.

Application Description:

Die casting is the process of forcing molten metal under high pressure into mold cavities (which are machined into dies). Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals, specifically zinc, copper, aluminium, magnesium, lead, and tin based alloys, although ferrous metal die castings are possible. The die casting method is especially suited for applications where a large quantity of small to medium sized parts are needed with good detail, a fine surface quality and dimensional consistency.

This level of versatility has placed die castings among the highest volume products made in the metalworking industry.

In recent years, injection-molded plastic parts have replaced some die castings because they are cheaper and lighter. Plastic parts are a practical alternative if hardness is not required and little strength is needed.

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